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Travellers' guide: Hawaii

Dr Liz's travel weather column appears in the travel section of the Saturday Independent

Hawaii

Hawaii's mild climate, beautiful scenery, warm ocean and gentle breezes make it the perfect holiday destination to visit any time of the year, but the variations in the weather across the islands can actually be quite surprising. In fact Hawaii boasts 11 of the 13 climate zones in the world, each with unique ecosystems and weather characteristics. On the nightly local news, you'll find surf reports for each side of the islands, along with wind and rainfall forecasts.

Cold Rush: Arctic ice caps, hidden mineral reserves and a 21st century gold rush

As the world warms and the Arctic's ice caps melt, the region's hidden oil, gas and mineral reserves are slowly being opened up for exploration, causing international rivals to begin jockeying for position. Viel Richardson examines the causes and consequences of a 21st century gold rush

2010: The year of extremes: Extreme weather events from across the globe in 2010

Record highs and drought

Although the 2009/2010 European winter saw some exceptionally cold and snowy periods, the Arctic polar regions and Canada experienced unusually mild winter conditions. Northern Europe experienced its coldest winter for nearly 30 years, while temperatures in some places in the Arctic and Canada reached +6°C above the long-term average and Canada experienced its mildest winter on record.

The winning question: How was the first thermometer calibrated?

The winning question (or, to be accurate, questions) in our Ask the Experts competition has been announced. Congratulations to Richard Ware for soundly testing their knowledge. Just to clarify, the image above is of Galileo, not Richard.

Question

a) How was the first thermometer calibrated?

b) What did Galileo use as a reference? Did he just get his pencil out and start marking the side of the thermometer ""10 ... 20 ... 30 ... 40"" etc?

c) Why did everyone (presumably) accept his findings as pukka? Did anyone query them?