A seasonal shift in wind direction that brings alternate very wet and very dry seasons to India and much of South-East Asia. It is a thermally-driven wind arising from differential heating between a land mass and the adjacent ocean that reverses its direction seasonally.

Typhoon Lan

Typhoon Lan (known as Typhoon Paolo in the Philippines) killed at least two people in Japan, with more than 200,000 households advised to evacuated on 22nd – 23rd October. The Typhoon was classified as a strong Category 4 storm at its peak but making landfall as a category 2, it brought heavy rainfall, sustained winds of 100 mph, high waves and flooding to parts of Japan.

Storm Brian

An intense low-pressure system brought stormy conditions to south-west Ireland and parts of England and Wales on 21st October.

Storm Brian – the second named storm of the season – crossed the Irish Sea bringing winds of up to 78 mph and flooding to parts of Ireland. Many flights and ferry crossings were cancelled due to the high winds and rough seas

This extreme weather system came just six days after Storm Ophelia swept across Ireland, resulting in three deaths.

Iberian wildfires

In mid-October, dozens were left dead and injured as hundreds of wildfires swept central and north Portugal, as well as the north-western Galicia region of Spain.

At least 40 people were killed and 50 injured as the hot (>30°C), dry weather took its toll on the landscape. Conditions were worsened by Hurricane Ophelia as its strong winds fanned and spread the flames.

The day the sun turned red

On the 16th October people across the UK turned their heads to the sky as it looked like an Instagram filter had been applied in real life. Following the passage of ex-hurricane Ophelia, the colour of the sun and the sky turned eerie shades of oranges and reds. Southerly winds not only bought warm, tropical air to part of southern UK, it also bought dust from the Sahara and smoke from forest fires in Spain and Portugal to the UK.